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Native Library Management for C# using vcpkg (and other things)

Let me start with a bit of a narrative first:

Around a year ago, I released a C#/.NET Core library called Bassoon. I was looking for a cross platform (Windows, OS X, and Linux) audio` playback library for C#, but I couldn’t find one that was suitable. So I did what any normal software developer would do: make your own. Instead of going full C# with it, I opted to take some off the shelf C libraries and use P/Invoke to chat with them. It uses libsndfile for decoding audio formats (sans MP3, but that might change soon). And PortAudio for making speakers make noise.

If you look at the repo’s README’s Developing section, you might notice that I’m not telling anyone one to do a sudo apt install libsndfile libportaudio (or some other package manager command for another OS). I’m not the biggest fan of baked dev environments. They can be a pain to reproduce for others. I like to have my dependencies per project instead of being installed system wide if I can help it.

The only downside is that you need to then create some (semi-) automated way for others to set up a dev environment for the project. E.g. all that “Download package from here then tar xzf, cd ..., ./configure, make, make install” nonsense. At first, I tried to make a simple bash script, but that got kinda ugly pretty quickly. I’m not the best shell programmer nor am I too fond of the syntax. There was a consideration for Python too, but I assumed that it could get a bit long and verbose.

I found out about CMake’s ExternalProject_Add feature and set off to make one surely disgusting CMakeLists.txt file. After a lot of pain and anguish, I got it to work cross platform and generate all of the native DLLs that I desired. Some things that stick out in my mind are:

  • having to also run the autogen.sh in some cases
  • needing to rename DLLs on Windows
  • finding the correct ./configure options to use on OS X

These all reduced the elegance/simplicity. But hey, it works!... Until about a month ago…

While it was still good on Linux to set up a clean build environment. After some updates on OS X, it stopped building. Same for Windows/MSYS2 as well. This has happened before for me with MSYS2 updates (on other projects) and I waslooking for an alternative solution.


C++ specific package managers are a tad bit of a new thing. I remember hearing about Conan and vcpkg when they first dropped. After doing a little research, I opted to use the Microsoft made option. While it was yet another piece of software to install, it seemed quite straightforward and easy to set up. PortAudio and libsndfile was in the repo as well. After testing it could build those libraries for all three platforms (which it did), I was sold on using it instead. There were a few caveats, but well worth it for my situation:

  1. Dynamic libraries were automatically built on Windows, but I needed to specify 64 bit. It was building 32 bit by default
  2. For Linux and OS X, static libraries are built by default. If you want the dynamic ones all you have to do is something called overlaying tripplets
  3. The generated file names of the DLLs were not always what I needed them to be. For example, in my C# code I have[DllImport(“sndfile”)] to make a P/Invoked function. On Windows, the DLL name must be sndfile.dll, Mac OS is libsndfile.dylib, finally Linux is libsndfile.so. On Windows I get libsndfile-1.dll built by default. Linux nets me libsndfile-shared.so. For these a simple file renaming works. OS X is a bit of a different story:

You see, every operating system has their own personality quirks. The Apple one is no exception. When I tried renaming libsndfile-shared.dylib to libsndfile.dylib, dotnet run crashed saying it couldn’t find the library. I know that I had all of the path & file locations correct, as the previous CMake built libraries worked. I was kinda of stumped...

After setting DYLD_PRINT_LIBRARIES=1 and trying another run I got a little hint. libsndfile.dylib was being loaded and then unloaded almost as soon as it was called:

dyld: loaded: /Users/ben/Desktop/Bassoon/third_party/lib//libsndfile.dylib
dyld: unloaded: /Users/ben/Desktop/Bassoon/third_party/lib//libsndfile.dylib

It also should be loading up libogg.dylib, libFLAC.dylib, libvorbis.dylib, etc. but that wasn’t happening. Looking at the vcpkg generated libs, running otool -L (OS X’s version of ldd), I got the reason why things weren’t the way I expected:

$ otool -L *
libFLAC.dylib:
    @rpath/libFLAC.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libogg.0.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.8.4)
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.250.1)
libogg.dylib:
    @rpath/libogg.0.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.8.4)
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.250.1)
libsndfile.dylib:
    @rpath/libsndfile-shared.1.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1.0.29)
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.250.1)
    @rpath/libogg.0.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.8.4)
    @rpath/libvorbisfile.3.3.7.dylib (compatibility version 3.3.7, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libvorbis.0.4.8.dylib (compatibility version 0.4.8, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libvorbisenc.2.0.11.dylib (compatibility version 2.0.11, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libFLAC.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.0.0)
libvorbis.dylib:
    @rpath/libvorbis.0.4.8.dylib (compatibility version 0.4.8, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libogg.0.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.8.4)
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.250.1)
libvorbisenc.dylib:
    @rpath/libvorbisenc.2.0.11.dylib (compatibility version 2.0.11, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libogg.0.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.8.4)
    @rpath/libvorbis.0.4.8.dylib (compatibility version 0.4.8, current version 0.0.0)
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.250.1)
libvorbisfile.dylib:
    @rpath/libvorbisfile.3.3.7.dylib (compatibility version 3.3.7, current version 0.0.0)
    @rpath/libogg.0.dylib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.8.4)
    @rpath/libvorbis.0.4.8.dylib (compatibility version 0.4.8, current version 0.0.0)
    /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.250.1)

From this, I was able to identify two problems:

  1. The “id” of a dylib didn’t match it’s filename. E.g. libvorbis.dylib’s id was set to libvorbisfile.3.3.7.dylib
  2. The dylibs were looking for non-existent dylibs. E.g. libvorbisenc.dylib was looking for libogg.0.dylib.

As to why this wasn’t happening with the previously CMake build native libs, it’s because they were configured/compiled with --disable-rpath. With vcpkg, I wasn’t able to set this when building libsndfile. The OS X toolkit does have a utility to fix the rpaths; install_name_tool:

  1. install_name_tool -id "@rpath/<dylib_file>" <dylib_file> is used to set the id we want
  2. install_name_tool -change "@rpath/<bad_dylib_path>" "@rpath/<good_dylib_path>" <dylib_file> can fix an incorrect rpath

Since I wanted the setup process to be fire and forget I still needed to write a script to automate all of this. At first I considered bash again, but then I thought “I don’t want to force someone to install the entire MSYS2 ecosystem for Windows. What else can I use?...” Python came to mind. Any developer is bound to have Python on their machine. I know that’s what I tried to avoid in the first place, but looking at the built in libraries for Python 3.x (.e.g shutil, subproccess, pathlib, etc) it was a better choice IMO. I also like the syntax more; I’ll always trade simple and easy to understand code any day over something that’s complex and shorter. For an example, here is how I have the dylibs for OS X fixed up:

To run this 3rd party dependency setup script, all you need to do is set an environment variable telling it where vcpkg is installed and then it will take care of the rest!


Now that all of the native library dependencies have been automated away, the next challenge was packaging them for NuGet. Before, I told my users to “clone the repo and run the CMake setup command yourself”. That wasn’t good for many reasons. A big one being that no one could easily make their own program using Bassoon and easily distribute it. I know that I needed to also have the native libs also put inside the NuGet package, but what to do…

If you search for “nuget packaging native libraries” into Goggle you get a slew of results telling you what to do; all of it can seem overwhelming from a quick glance. “Do I use dotnet pack or nuget pack? Do I need to make a separate .nuspec file? But wait, dotnet pack does that for me already… What is a .targets file? What is a .props file? How many of those do I need? What is this whole native/libs/* tree structure? Oh man, all that XML looks complicated and scary. I have no idea what I’m reading.” Throwing in cross platform native libraries adds a whole other level of trouble too. Most tutorials are only written for Windows and for use within Visual Studio. Not my situation, which was all three major platforms. Even peeking into other cross platform projects (e.g. SkiaSharp) to see how they did it, makes it look even more confusing. Too many configuration files to make sense of.

Then I found NativeLibraryManager. It has a much more simpler method to solve this problem: embed your native libraries inside of your generated .NET DLL and extract them at runtime. I don’t want to copy what it says in it’s README, so go read that. But I’ll summarize that I only had to add one line for each native library to the .csproj (for embedding). Then for extracting at runtime, a little bit of code. For people who want to use PortAudioSharp or libsndfileSharp directly, they only need to call the function LoadNativeLibrary() before doing anything else. And as for the nature of Bassoon’s initialization, they don’t have to do anything!

I cannot thank @olegtarasov enough for creating this. I’m a programmer. I like to write code; not configuration and settings files.

At the time of writing, libsndfileSharp package is partially broken for OS X due to a bug in NativeLibraryManager. But a ticket has been filed explaining what’s wrong and most likely what needs to be fixed. It should be good soon :P

If anyone wants to help out with Basson (e.g. adding multi-channel support) or the lower level libraries (adding more bindings to libsndfile and PortAudio), I do all of the development over on GitLab.





I’d like to mention that I’m a little less employed than I would like to be; I need a job. My strongest skills are in C/C++, C#/.NET, Python, Qt, OpenGL, Computer Graphics, game technologies, and low level hardware optimizations. I currently live in the Boston area, so I’m looking for something around there. Or a company that lets me work remotely is fine too. I’m also open to part time, contract, and contract-to-hire situations. If you send me an email about your open positions, I’ll respond with a full resume and portfolio if I’m interested.

Please; I’m the sole provider for a cat who’s love is motivated by food. Kibble ain’t free.


Tags: C#, Projects

Status Update 8
So it's been quite a bit since I last did an update. A few months short of two years to be exact. I've been fairly busy with work and some other long term personal projects. But in the meantime, I did get to release a much smaller one; Basson, a cross platform audio playback engine for C#/.NET Core:
https://gitlab.com/define-private-public/Bassoon

I created this since I wanted to be able to do audio playback in C# on Linux, Windows, and OS X. While there were some packages available on NuGet, they were not preferable to me, so I took the time to make my own. It's hobbled together using P/Invoke bindings to `libsndfile` and PortAudio. At the moment it does not support MP3 decoding (though that is planned), which is one of the main drawbacks. And you also need to build the native dependencies yourself, but a CMake file is provided to handle that. In the future, I hope to also add some more features such as audio recording and some minor effects. So far I am happy with it.

Tags: C#, Status Update, Projects

Drawing the C# Networking Tutoral Series to a Close

So I haven't updated it in about 4-5 months. I think that It's time that I get rid of the "hiatus," marker on the side and say that it's officially over. I was planning on covering things like SSL and async Sockets, and maybe exploring some 3rd party libraries. But I think it might be better to say that it's officially over rather than to have this monkey on my back. I have a new job to deal with and my interest in C# has waned a little.

If you would like to, you can read some more details about the conclusion here. For those of you who never knew about it, you can start the course here.

The ride was fun and educational to me as well. Thanks.


Tags: C#, Tutorials

C# Networking Tutorials

I've been hard at work to make sure that the new "Tutorials," section works well and functions the way I intended it to. Nearly every day I've been finding and fixing a new bug. Anyways, to kick it off, I will be running a series of tutorials around C#'s Networking API (the System.Net namespace). You can find it over here.

There isn't much there now, but expect more soon!


Tags: C#, Tutorials, Projects

Another Site Update
I decided to take some time this Friday to add a new section to my site; Tutorials.

I got rid of the old "pages," sections (it was kind of sad), but I still have some things that I do want to share. There isn't any content there yet, but expect some stuff soon. I'm thinking of some C# networking tutorials. The url is here: https://16bpp.net/tutorials/

I'm still working on those "look & feel," updates as well.

Tags: C#, Site Updates, Tutorials

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